Water Contaminant

How Coronavirus Gets into Drinking Water

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the causative virus of the COVID-19 disease. Although most people with COVID-19 have mild symptoms, some become severely ill. Furthermore, most people get better within weeks of contracting the disease. However, some experience post-COVID conditions, which include a wide range of new, ongoing, or returning health problems occurring for more than four weeks of getting infected with the causative virus of COVID-19. Studies show that older people and people with underlying medical conditions are more likely to experience severe COVID-19 symptoms. Fortunately, there are safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19.
A letter to Washington, DC, the Governors in all 50 states, tribes, and territories contains a request. The request is that state authorities consider water and wastewater workers, manufacturers, and suppliers that provide vital materials and services in the water sector as essential workers and businesses when enacting restrictions for curbing the spread of COVID-19. The critical water structure and operators depend on laboratory supplies, treatment chemicals, and related goods and materials to ensure safe water supply to homes and hospitals.
On Monday night, the omicron variant of the COVID-19 virus was said to be present in Houston wastewater. Although the announcement indicates that the new variant is present in Houston, there are no confirmed cases yet.
Omicron was found in eight out of 39 wastewater treatment plants in Houston from samples collected on November 29-30. The treatment plants include W.C.I.D #111, Keegans Bayou, Chocolate Bayou, Northgate, Metro Central, Turkey Creek, Sims Bayou North, and West District. On Monday evening, the genomic sequencing results confirming the presence of the omicron variant were received.
Fortunately, the virus causing COVID-19 is not yet present in drinking water. Nevertheless, most municipal drinking water systems use conventional water treatment methods like filtration and disinfection, which can remove or inactivate the virus causing COVID-19.
Currently, there is no evidence of the COVID-19 virus spreading to people via pools, spas, hot tubs, or water play areas. With proper operation, and maintenance including chlorine and bromine disinfection, these facilities can inactivate the virus in the water. Although there is an ongoing spread of the COVID-19 virus in communities, individuals, owners, and operators of these facilities should take steps to ensure health and safety. These steps include following local and state guidelines that determine how and when recreational water facilities operate.
Another step includes individuals protecting themselves and others in and out of the water at recreational water venues. For instance, practicing social distancing and maintaining good hand hygiene is essential. Furthermore, in addition to ensuring water quality and safety, operators and owners of community pools, spas, hot tubs, and water play areas should follow interim guidance for employers and businesses regarding cleaning and disinfecting community facilities.
The COVID-19 virus particles have a size of 0.125 microns or 125 nanometers. The minimum pore size of a membrane in a RO filter is about 0.0001 microns. Therefore, the membrane is 1000x smaller than the virus particles. An RO filter can effectively trap bacteria and viruses larger than 0.0001 microns in size.
When pressure forces unfiltered water or fees water through a semipermeable membrane, reverse osmosis removes the contaminants. In an RO membrane, water flows from the concentrated (area with more contaminants) to the less concentrated (area with fewer contaminants) to provide clean drinking water. The freshwater that the RO membrane produces is also known as permeate. On the other hand, the concentrated leftover is also known as waste or brine.
Water can still flow through a semipermeable membrane even though it has small pores to block contaminants. Water becomes more concentrated while passing through a membrane in osmosis to obtain equilibrium on both sides of the membrane. On the other hand, reverse osmosis blocks contaminants from entering the less concentrated membrane side. For instance, when applying pressure to a volume of saltwater in reverse osmosis, only clean water flows through while the salt remains behind.
Healthy Life Water Contaminant

The Best Ways to Get Rid of PFAS from Your Water

Per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are man-made chemicals used for clothing to furniture since the 1940s. These substances are also used for electronics and food packaging. Industries have used these chemicals due to their repellent properties. Because PFAS were associated with adverse health effects in the early 2000s, they were taken out of production in the United States. Unfortunately, these chemicals were carried throughout the environment and in water supplies. Many of these environmental issues were caused by overseas manufacturing, imported products, and will form a strong bond that can resist degradation. According to the Environmental Working Group, it’s estimated that more than 200 million Americans have PFAS in their drinking water. Read on to learn about PFAS, if your water is contaminated, and how you can remove it from your water.

About PFAS

PFAS are man-made chemicals created by a mixture of carbon and fluorine forming one of the strongest bonds in nature. Adding to that, PFAS do not break down, remain stable in water, and stay in the environment along as in human bodies for a very long period of time. These contaminants have been given the nickname “forever chemicals”. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) said it can take up to 4 years for the levels of PFAS in your body to reduce in half.
In the 1940s, PFAS were introduced as repellents in water, oil, grease, stains, and fire. They have been used throughout different industries for many needed products including non-stick cookware, water-resistant clothing, stain-proof fabrics, and the foam used for fighting fires. There are approximately 5,000 forms of PFAS. The most common are perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and studied in the U.S. The manufacturing industry stopped using these chemicals in the early 2000s but due to their ability to live longer and because they are used overseas, PFAS are still present in our environment to date.

The Products Where PFAS Are Found

Due to their versatile properties, PFAS are found in a wide range of products. PFAS are found in many household items including:
  • Paint, polish, and wax
  • Microwave popcorn bags
  • Water-resistant clothing
  • Pizza boxes
  • Non-stick cookware
  • Stain-resistant carpets and furniture
  • Cleaning Products

PFAS End Up in Your Drinking Water

When PFAS seeps into soil and groundwater or surface water, PFAS is water-soluble and commonly found in water near facilities that manufacture form for fire fighting in training and also used on military bases, airports, and training centers. PFAS enters water when products containing these chemicals are sent to landfills. Once the products break down, they remain in the soil then seep into nearby water sources.

The Leading Effects from PFAS

The effects on health vary but some of the most common are reproductive, developmental, and immunological issues. Because PFAS does not break down easily, it can build up in the human body over time. The more exposure the greater the chances are for developing negative health effects. The EPA has shown evidence of PFAS exposure in the following:
  • Suppressing the immune system
  • Thyroid hormone disruption
  • An increase in cholesterol levels
  • Lowering infant birth weight
  • Liver and kidney damage
  • Cancer

You Can Remove PFAS from Your Water

You can remove PFAS from your water by using reverse osmosis with activated carbon filtration and ion exchange.
The Reverse Osmosis system applies pressure to push unfiltered water through the semipermeable membrane. The membrane has small pores that prevent contaminants from getting through including PFAS but allows clean water to flow to the other side. Reverse osmosis is the best water treatment to remove contaminants from your water.
Carbon filters have activated carbon with a great number of pores on the surface and infrastructure. As water runs through the carbon, PFAS and other contaminants are captured by a process called absorption, allowing the water to flow through to the other side.
PFAS can be found in bottled water as well as canned carbonated water. A study by Consumer Reports tested 47 brands of bottled water and canned carbonated water and found detectable levels of PFAS but only 9 brands had levels over 1 part per trillion (PPT). Out of the 9 brands with levels over 1 PPT, 2 were basic water and 7 were carbonated.
There are several ways to remove PFAS from your drinking water. You need to purchase a good quality water filtration system to make sure you and your family have safe, clean water to prevent any health issues.
Water Contaminant

What Is A TDS Meter and When Is It Necessary?

Water can dissolve and absorb almost any substance; hence, it is a universal solvent. The total dissolved solids (TDS) level is the number of dissolved particles, whether organic or inorganic, in a particular volume of water. Water quality is dependent on the TDS level. This article discusses total dissolved solids, the measurement, and reducing TDS levels to improve water quality. Kindly read on for more information!

What Is TDS?

Total dissolved solids (TDS) indicate the level of dissolved organic and inorganic matter in a volume of water; the matter could be metals, salts, minerals, and ions. Generally, TDS is a measure of anything apart from an H2O molecule that dissolves in water. Because water is a universal solvent. It absorbs part of any soluble material it comes in contact with, thus, increasing TDS levels. Familiar sources of TDS in water include natural water springs, municipal water treatment chemicals, road runoffs, and a home’s plumbing system.

What Are The Types of Total Dissolved Solids?

There are several total dissolved solids in water. Common types of TDS include minerals like calcium, magnesium, potassium, aluminum, chloride, and zinc. Copper, lead, arsenic, chlorine, sodium, and iron are also types of TDS. Water can also accumulate TDS like herbicides, pesticides, sulfates, bicarbonates, and fluoride.
Sources of TDS can either be natural or artificial. Springs, rivers, lakes, plants, and soil are all-natural sources of TDS. For instance, water flows underground to absorb calcium, potassium, and magnesium from rocks in a natural spring.
Human activities can also increase TDS levels in the water. Usually, agricultural runoff is a source of herbicides and pesticides, old plumbing pipes are a source of lead, and water treatment plants contribute chlorine. Sometimes, bottled mineral water contains total dissolved solids as mineral additives.

How Can You Measure TDS?

Total dissolved solids are measured per volume of water—the unit of TDS is milligrams per liter (mg/L) or parts per million (ppm). The EPA’s secondary drinking water regulations recommend that drinking water should not have more than 500ppm of TDS. TDS levels greater than 1000ppm are unsafe. A TDS level higher than 2000 ppm requires an efficient filtration system to remove TDS.
The best way to know the TDS level in your water is to test with a TDS meter. A TDS reading of 100ppm means that out of one million particles in water, 100 are dissolved solids while 999,900 are water molecules. Consequently, the TDS level is low. The type of TDS present in water determines its quality; however, a TDS meter does not show the types of total dissolved solids in a water sample. Therefore, you need a home water test kit or a lab water analysis to determine the exact kind of TDS present in your water. In addition, water suppliers test and provide water quality reports on request.
The Waterdrop TDS meter has a stainless-steel sensor that can accurately measure the type of TDS present in water without any magnetic field interference. The meter has a screen that displays the readout within seconds. The meter also has an Automatic Temperature Controller (ATC) that ensures the water temperature doesn’t affect the results. The Waterdrop TDS meter has a range of 0-9999 ppm, and you can test the TDS of your tap water, pool, spa, or any other water source.
The Waterdrop TDS meter features a power-saving mode that automatically shuts off the sensor after 3 minutes of no operation. The meter also has a lead-free and BPA-free design that prevents filtered water from secondary pollution.
The water hardness test kit is also suitable for testing TDS in water. All you need to do is dip the test strip in the water sample and compare the strip’s color to the color chart on the bottle. The benefit of this test kit is that you test water quality yourself; you don’t have to visit a store or wait for someone else to carry out the test. Another benefit is that you get consistent and reliable results.
You can read the results of the water hardness test effortlessly. Just compare results from red to green on the oversized color chart. Also, compare the values between 0 – 25 GPG and 0 – 425 ppm. The testing contains a ready-to-use test bottle and 50 test strips in 2 separately sealed pouches. Once you run out of test strips, empty the refill pouch into the test bottle to ensure the reliability and freshness of the test strips.

What Is The Importance of TDS Level in Water?

TDS affects the taste of water and the taste of water mixes such as cocktails. In addition, TDS can affect human health and the piping system in homes. The TDS leveling water can affect the following;
  • Taste and mouthfeel: High TDS levels can give water a bitter, salty taste or odor considering the dissolved solids. When you use water with a high TDS level to cook food or brew coffee, it affects the taste. The mouthfeel, on the other hand, describes the sensations you feel in your when drinking. For instance, silica affects water texture and gives it a slippery feel. Always read a bottles label or a chemical test kit to know the type of TDS present in drinking water
  • Gastronomical experience: TDS level allows you to find the perfect water that can enhance taste, especially when combined with food and other drinks. For example, whiskey has an improved taste when paired with super-low TDS water because it enhances the liquor’s taste. Furthermore, low TDS water, when paired with light food, enhances its flavors. On the other hand, high TDS water pairs better with red meats, thus improving its flavors

Health Effects of High TDS Level in Drinking Water

Although high TDS levels may affect water taste, it does not cause any harm to human health. Nevertheless, TDS levels greater than 500ppm require further testing to ascertain if it contains toxic types. Also, TDS levels above 1000ppm are unsafe for consumption. It is best to note that the TDS types present in water are more critical than the TDS level. Fortunately, a home test kit or lab analysis can help ascertain the types of total dissolved solids present in a water sample.


The total dissolved solids in water can affect its taste and feel. Also, high levels and the type of TDS present in drinking water can impact human health. Thus, it is best always to test the TDS level in the water
All Reviews Water Contaminant

How Long Does Zerowater Filter Last and Why the Water Tastes Lemony?

The water filter pitcher is one of the most popular filtration options on
the market for its accessibility and convenience.
Many consumers purchase the water filter pitcher to reduce unpleasant flavors and odors, and wish to improve the
water quality.
Among all kinds of pitchers with different designs and filtration
performances, the ZeroWater filter pitchers stand out for
their ability to reduce the TDS (total dissolved solids) to
Yet, behind the successful marketing concept, the product receives numerous
complaints about its taste and replacement cost.
Before making the purchase, let’s take a thorough look at the ZeroWater pitcher. We’ll ask how long does the
ZeroWater filter last, and why does the water
taste lemony?

The unpleasant taste within a very short time

Based on many reviews and product comparison reports, the water filtered by
ZeroWater tastes better than that of Brita and PUR water
filter pitchers. However, consumers complain that after about two weeks, the water developed a very unpleasant
taste. Some people described it as a sour and lemony
disgusting taste, some people described it as fishy.
The reason for the sour chemical taste is not because of some flaws of the
product quality, but the urgency to replace the filter. Why? How
long does a ZeroWater filter last? The following section will explain the filtration process behind and answer
the question for you.
ZeroWater uses ion exchange to reduce the
TDS in water to zero. The ions carrying positive charges are called cations, while ions carrying
negative charges are called anions. The two types of ions in water are always equal in the number of charges.
Typical cations may include calcium ion, sodium ion, potassium ion,
magnesium ion, and typical anions may include sulfate ion, chloride ion, carbonate ion,
and so on. The ZeroWater filter contains an ion exchange layer that replaces the cations with hydrogen ion, and
replaces the anions with hydroxyl ion, which forms pure
water H2O eventually.
The filter will work perfectly to deliver you pure water until it runs out
either H+ or OH-. If the OH- is fully consumed first, then the anions remain
in the water after filtering, and the cations are still replaced by the hydrogen ion (acid ion), finally
resulting in acids, such as sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and carbonic
acid. That’s why the water tastes sour or acidic at the end.

The high replacement cost

You can solve the unpleasant taste problem simply by changing the filter.
Then the next problem shows up: the frequency of filter replacement. Like
we have discussed above, once the H+ or OH- inside a filter runs out, then it’s time to replace. So how long
does a ZeroWater filter last? Not very long. We’ll go into more
depth below.
Based on the true product reviews, if the source water TDS is around 100,
the ZeroWater filter can filter about 15-18 gallons of water before it turns sour.
If the source water has high TDS as 700, each ZeroWater cartridge could not filter more than 5 gallons of water.
So, how long does a ZeroWater filter last? The numbers are far below than
the advertised filter service life. A filter will last, on average less than two weeks.
Therefore, it could become excessively pricey having to change the filter
three times a month.
It would be economically preferable to switch to other filtration options.

What is TDS and how to reduce TDS in water?

Before we jump into the filtration option section, let’s learn some
information about the TDS.
TDS stands for total
dissolved solids, it refers to the total concentration of dissolved solids in water including both inorganic and
organic matters.
Some of the common components are calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium cations and carbonate, hydrogen
carbonate, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate anions.
There is no scientific evidence that suggests that high TDS will bring out
adverse health effects. Many countries do have drinking water standards in
regards to TDS, but only for aesthetic reasons with no health criteria. The US recommended maximum level is 500 mg/L as
well as the Canadian guideline. To learn more about the
recommended TDS level here.
TDS Level in parts per million(ppm)
Palatability Quotient
Less than 300
Between 300 and 600
Between 600 and 900
Between 900 and 1200
Greater than 1200

Efficient and economical way to reduce the TDS in water

The common ways to reduce the TDS in water are distillation and reverse


Distillation offers clean water through
boiling and producing water vapor. When water vapor rises and reaches to a cool surface,
it will condense back to the liquid form. The dissolved salts and other particles will remain in the boiling
You can get zero TDS water from distillation without the concern to replace
any filters, however, the downsides are the energy cost and the slow output.

Reverse Osmosis

The benefits of Reverse
Osmosis filtration
is obvious by comparison. The system uses a semi-permeable membrane which
the unclean water is “pressured through.”
The membrane contains pores of 0.0001 microns that are only big enough to
allow the passage of water molecules while blocking other foreign components
like pyrogens, bacteria, organics, and dissolved solids. The normal output of a RO system is around 200-600
gallons per day and you can access clean and safe water by just turning
on the faucet.
Therefore, from the efficiency, sustainability and cost perspectives, we
recommend using a reverse osmosis system to reduce the TDS in water.
Many people are concerned about the amount of waste water that the RO system generated during the filtration

Our recommendations

Below are several types of RO systems from that we have picked for you.

Waterdrop G3 reverse osmosis water filtration system

As the star product of Waterdrop, the G3 reverse osmosis is taking the
market by storm with its revolutionary tankless design. The system looks nothing
like a traditional RO system. It is very thin and sleek. The tankless design saves much undersink space and
brings more room for storage.
In terms of filtration performance, the G3 system adopts the premium DOW RO
membrane with the TDS removal rate of 94% as well as other contaminants in water.
The system is designed for easy DIY installation and the filter replacement
only takes 3 seconds. If you’re looking for an efficient and certain way to get clean,
safe and healthy drinking water, Waterdrop G3 would be the ideal option.

SimPure Y6 Countertop Reverse Osmosis Water Filtration Purification System

Unlike traditional under sink reverse osmosis system, SimPure Y6 is designed
to be placed on countertop. This means you can enjoy pure RO water at anywhere
you want and you don’t have to drill a hole on your kitchen sink.
The plug-in design allows you to get purified water right away. One full set
of quick changing twist-and-seal filters come included it. You can get rid of
the troubles caused by complicated installation and filter replacement. Compared to traditional Under-Sink
Filtration, SimPure Y6 is free from water source and space constraints, you
can place and move SimPure water purifier to anywhere with power supply available, perfect for kitchen, bedroom,
office, lobby, Outdoor RV etc.
This system is able to convert your tap water or well water into pure and
healthy drinking water by removing 99.99% of the 1,000+ pollutants & harmful substance
including chemicals (PFOA/PFOS, Pharmaceuticals), heavy metals (Lead, Arsenicetc), chlorine, TDS (fluoride,
nitrates/nitrites) and etc.

Waterdrop D6 RO Reverse Osmosis Water Filtration System

Traditional RO water purifier is composed of several filters, and the
installation is quite complicated. Waterdrop D6 RO water filter system adopts
a 5-in-1 composite reverse osmosis filter with a DOW reverse osmosis membrane that has a pore size of 0.0001 um.
The D6 reverse osmosis water system employs a tankless design
and a composite reverse osmosis filter. Compared to traditional whole house reverse osmosis, the compact D6 RO
water filter system saves 70% of your under-sink space. Also,
a DIY installation can be completed within 30 minutes. The push-in replacement design allows you to replace the
filter in 3 seconds, without moving the system or using any tools.
Waterdrop D6 reverse osmosis water system is upgraded to have a flow rate of
600 GPD. With an innovative internal pump and a larger filter surface, you can fill
a cup of water in 8 seconds. A low drain ratio of 1.5:1 means that dispensing 1.5 cups of pure water produces
only 1 cup of wastewater, saving 450% of water compared to a conventional water
filtration system for home.